The Solution to Rubin's Problem 28 September 2012 The Data Model below explains how Galactical Rotation Curves in Spiral Galaxies are formed due to twin centers of gravity. Note how there is no velocity at the middle. The two centers of gravity move slower than the outer stars. The laws of gravity do not need to be altered at all. Everything works according to the basic Newtonian law: g=m/r^2 As the Spiral Galaxy sheds its mass, the light it emits is lost and a dark halo of mass then spirals out as Dark Matter.

 Dark Energy is the innate spin within the early universe. Two objects spinning in unison will overcome their gravitational attraction and sustain circular orbital stability. It is extremely unlikely that a stable spinning pair will form due to randomness. Thus they must have originated from a single spinning object to maintain uniform circularity. Their spin must have become so powerful as to force them apart beyond the pull of gravity. This dynamic nature of the centrifugal force is calculated for planets, stars, galaxies and the Universe as a whole.

 Click the link below and Download Orbit Game 4 to see how these images were generated: >> orbit-game-4.exe << simplified version Click the link below and Download Orbit Game 4.2 to see how these images were generated: >> orbit-game-4-2.exe << 4.2 has random variables you can alter

 Click the link below and Download Orbit Game 4.3 (August 2014) to see how these images were generated: >> orbit-game-4-3.exe << orbit-game-4-3.exe demonstrates how the binary pair move away from each other as they lose mass due to stars having being emitted. Thus subsequent stars are effected by a lesser gravitational force, moving them more slowly. The outer and older stars have often reached escape velocity.

 This is how wikipedia outlines the problem: "Left: A galaxy with a rotation curve as predicted before the effects of dark matter were known. Right: A galaxy with a flat rotation curve."

 Compare this to my data-model:

 Dark matter has no unique effect on the system. It is just matter that you cannot see. The light at the center of the galaxy is very visible, but it has very little gravitational effect. That is why there is little velocity at the center. The bright light is caused by stars colliding. (Not shown in my model) But, the stars rotating outwards have surpassed escape velocity which is why they do not exhibit the patterns found in solar systems. They recede from the center at a mostlyuniform velocity.

 here is a full summary of rotation curves of spiral galaxies Latest Article: Gravitational Waves & General Relativity

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