How do Binary Stars Form?
Half of stars exist as binary pairs. The issue at the centre of Cosmology and astrophysics that is almost entirely overlooked by all other theories is that star-formation and galaxy formation hinges intrinsically on how binary star-systems form. And only Sum Theory has even ventured an entirely non-contradictory answer to this question.
The algorithms OG3, OG6 and OG7 (available at this link: gravity simulators) have clearly shown that if two bodies have no pre-existing orbital structure – then they can never form a binary structure as a result of just their own momentum and gravity. Some other force or body is required to interfere and make them form an orbital structure.
Furthermore, binary systems almost never form in randomly positioned object-dense scenarios. On the very rare occasion that a binary pair does form due to interaction with a third body, then a fourth body will inevitably destroy the binary orbit. Vitally, celestial bodies cannot simply ‘capture’ one another.
The odds that half of all stars would form binary pairs due to chance encounters in stellar-dense space are too impossibly remote to even calculate. Even if this remote chance is reluctantly taken to be a foundation premise, and binary star-systems and solar-systems had formed from randomly moving small particles in the chaotic aftermath of the ‘Big Bang’ then planetary orbits would be highly eccentric, and often at right-angles to one another – and that is only if a ridiculous set of coincidences enabled them to form at all.
If small asteroids collide, they should shatter or bounce off one another on more occasions than combine. This is because small asteroids have very little gravity which would cause tiny amounts of attraction by comparison to the velocity required to frequently bring them into contact with one another. That is why planetary rings and the asteroid belt have not formed moons or planets. Gas clouds cannot coalesce into binary pairs anymore than throwing a handful of sand in the air can result in it falling to the ground in two neat piles.
Certainly it had been proven to me in OGS2 that after planets have formed, a solar system structure with neat gaps between the planets on a flat ecliptic plane can sustain itself much more easily if every second orbit is in a counter-clockwise direction. This is because bodies in this structure would spend less time in the range of gravity that is strong enough to pull them together. (You will probably need to experiment with orbit gravity simulators to appreciate this). But it is certainly clear that orbits at right-angles to one another will attract each other less than orbits on an ecliptic plane. A symmetrical solar-system like ours is thus the least likely result of just gravity and randomness.
Even the axial rotations of celestial bodies are mostly uniform in direction, and a reasonable degree of symmetry in their rates of rotation has been observed, such that larger planets like Jupiter and Saturn rotate much faster than smaller bodies. If planets had formed from random collisions of smaller bodies then such axial rotation would cancel out after numerous random collisions. Thus random collisions would yield the largest bodies as having the slowest axial rotation.
Moreover smaller bodies would rotate less uniformly when compared to one another if they formed from random collisions. Compare the striking similarity of the axial rotations of Mars and Earth, for example. Now compare the similarity in axial rotation of Jupiter and Saturn. Such uniformity can only come about if those similar planets formed from similar origins.
Careful study of orbital structures in computer algorithms has shown that a uniform solar system with such neat orbital directions could only form if one of a binary pair of stars had gone ‘nova’ – or disintegrated through other means. The formation of numerous uniform orbital systems of moons all on the same ecliptic plane could only result from the Sun’s dead twin having been spinning rapidly at the point it fell apart – perhaps even falling apart due to excessive spin.
So the question now shifts from how planetary systems form – to how binary stars form. The only conclusion from years of constructing algorithms depicting orbital structures has been that they started as a single object that split in half due to (or in addition to) a massive amount of (possibly increasing) axial rotation. The problem here is that a newly formed binary pair of stars in close proximity needs a reason to expand further apart.
If we take the expansion of the Universe as this reason, then we need to find a reason for the stars to slow down proportionally to the distance they drift apart. Because if they maintain the same high orbital velocity that they parted with, then as they drift apart due to expansion, they will eventually reach escape velocity from one another.
So it seems that when binary stars form they do so in the midst of large amounts of stellar gas, which slows down their velocity at a proportional rate to that with which they drift apart. That is quite a neat coincidence. And yes, this is all quite vague still, and it will be explored properly in a computer algorithm at some point in the future. The point for now being that: the orbital structures required to give rise to so many binary pairs has never been fully understood. The odds of even 2 in a 1000 stars being binary systems due to random interactions is actually virtually impossible.
Inherent in understanding how binary orbits form, is how galaxies form in such well-structured shapes so early in the Universe. Only Sum-Theory has offered a non-contradictory solution for this from what I have seen.
Let us scratch this surface somewhat. Consider that our galaxy near its birth had a diameter of about 50% wider than the solar system. Here the proto-galaxy would have a density equal to water, making it marginally less dense than the Sun is currently.
At this point it would have had an escape velocity of 30 times the velocity of light. So according to the Relativists this could not have resulted in it expanding further. Of course the Relativists have not noticed this, and quite happily theorize that the entire Universe at one point was indefinitely small. Actually the entire Milky-way galaxy would need to be of a radius more than a light-year to have an escape velocity less than the velocity of light.
But it is the structure of the proto-galaxy which is so vital to discover. Common observations of the early Universe have galaxies forming within a very short time. Thus star systems – and by implication binary star systems – would also have to have formed very early on. The theoretical answers postulated so far still need further development, and this section is still vastly incomplete. But it still ventures far beyond any other theory on the matter.
Most other theories simply assume that random particles will form the known celestial structures purely from the force of gravity. And that is the ‘science of the gaps’ at its most crude. That anyone can assume such answers without computational algorithms and a solution to n-body Newtonian gravity fields is about as weak as any theorizing can get on the matter.
Future algorithms will endeavour to show that the answer as to how binary star-systems form; is the fundamental sub-structure underpinning how it is that early galaxies have such non-random shapes. I can not see any other viable foundation for this, other than binary pairs forming out of a single body, by separation due to (or in addition to) excessively increasing spin.
if one of a binary pair of stars goes nova, then a solar system
will certainly form from the debris. And such a solar system will
have planets and numerous moons orbiting in the same direction,
on a flat ecliptic plane, with similar axial rotation to one another.
The amount of randomness would have to be proportionally very small
in comparison to the inherent spin of the structure. That much is
certain beyond any doubt even at this primitive stage in the formulation
of the theory.
This is an extract summary of Chapter XXX of the book: Flight Light and Spin
Download page for relativity simulation: algorithm orbit-gravity-sim-12.exe
The full chapter can be downloaded here: Sum-Theory.pdf
(5.5 mb, 57 pages, this pdf file is too big for chrome, use firefox)
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